Advanced Search Abstract The Oxford English Dictionary is a dictionary constructed from its quotations of historical and current-day texts, with the aim of exhibiting the history and development of the English language.
Open source software is the product of a community process that in a single project may employ different development techniques and volunteers with diverse skills, interests and hardware.
Reuse of OSS software in systems that will have to guarantee certain product properties is still complicated. The main reason is the many different levels of trust that can be placed on the various OSS sources and the lack of information for the impact that a reused OSS component can have on the system properties.
A prerequisite for promoting widespread reuse of OSS software is certification at the component level in an affordable cost. This work addresses the main technical issues behind OSS component certification by formal and semifor- mal techniques, as well as the incentives that raised the need for the OPEN-SME European funded project.
We discuss the requirements relating to OSS software reuse based on the findings of a survey. Then we present the OPEN-SME tool-set and approach for OSS reuse and finally we show how the provision of veri- fiable certificates can provide assurance that an OSS component conforms to one or more anticipated requirements, necessary for reusing it in a system.
This definition by Bertrand Meyer emphasizes two aspects that we need to consider. The second is that someone should guarantee their properties in relation to quality e.
Reusability may be considered as an umbrella property that embeds many other properties including quality related ones. Quality on the other hand is a multi-faceted concept with many different and often incompatible views [Gar84, KP96].
For example the ISO quality model [ISO01] defines software product qual- ity as a combination of six characteristics, namely functionality, reliability, usability, efficiency, maintainability and portability, which are further sub-divided in sub-characteristics e.
However none of the quality models had established a unanimous consensus and criticism exists even for the ISO quality model, which enjoys the status of an international standard. For example a survey for the ISO quality model revealed ambiguities in the structure of the quality model although it also pro- vided evidence for its partial validity [HSC04].
Furthermore software quality can be generally viewed from the perspective of process-based approaches to quality, such as CMMI and ISO-which assume that by improving the process of software development eventually better quality products will follow, and product-based approaches to quality which measure or verify software characteristics to objectively conclude quality related issues.
These two general ap- proaches also generate criticism and none is unanimously accepted. For Open Source Software OSS quality however, and although process-based approaches are valuable, we cannot hope that they can affect the processes followed by open source projects, since the participation in these projects is mostly volunteer-based.
Finally, studies have established that the quality of OSS is comparable to closed source software; how- ever this may be happening for different reasons. For example [Abe07] observes that intense bug reporting in OSS projects in tandem with rapid release cycles results in decreased defect density.
Modularity, documentation, improved tools and processes are also very important since they increase participation effectively contributing to the so-called many-eyeballs effect: In this context, software reuse is regarded as the sharing of software modules across different de- velopment teams, organizations, and diverse application domains.
The potential benefits from the adoption of Software Reuse practices by software SMEs could provide substantial competi- tive advantages against large players by improving productivity, increasing competitiveness, and facilitating entrance to new markets.
A prerequisite for the effective reuse of software modules however is the trustworthiness of these modules. To establish trustworthiness, SME Associa- tions which are representatives of software development SMEs provide a number of services centered on the reuse of OSS software effectively acting as certification authorities for their SME members.
The OPEN-SME project emphasizes trustworthiness of software components through product-based approaches to quality because, as we already mentioned, process-based approaches are not suitable for OSS software reuse.
In the rest of this paper in Section 2 we present a survey which we conducted in order to elicit requirements for the trustworthiness of OSS reusable components. Next in Section 5 we will review some of the most prominent approaches to OSS software certification and quality.
Finally in Section 6 we conclude. The questionnaire was quite extensive since the OPEN-SME project aims at developing and support a reuse process and tools, however a number of questions were specifically addressing quality issues that are directly related to the trustworthiness aspect of OSS reuse.
In this section we present some of the most important findings of this survey which helped in shaping the OPEN-SME processes and tools.
The result is shown in Figure 1. As can be seen, the most important reuse artifact is source code whereas the less reusable artifact are requirements.
The importance of code as a reuse artifact signifies that tools and processes should concentrate in establishing trust at this level, since developers are more likely to be interested in directly reusing source code modules. This emphasis on source code is also evident in a number of commercial tools that aim in architecture reconstruction from source code and re-modularization such as Structure [STR10] and Lattix [Lat10].Undergraduate Courses Actuarial Mathematics ACMA Faculty of Science Business Administration BUS students will be assigned to two course sections at the appropriate level according to their language skills from beginners to upper intermediate in reading, writing, comprehension, conversation and .
Ethics quiz 1.
you can add questions but post them on the comment board first. STUDY. PLAY. What are the two types of virtue according to Aristotle. Moral and intellectual.
What are moral virtues. courage, temperance, justice, generosity: products of habit which evolve in states of character, defined by limits, work within reason according. The Use of Literary Quotations in the Oxford English Dictionary.
Charlotte Brewer. The Use of Literary Quotations in the Oxford English Dictionary, The Review of English Studies and (for the eighteenth century) Brewer, ‘Reporting Eighteenth-Century Vocabulary in the OED’, in Words and Dictionaries from the British.
Ingo Scholtes, Pavlin Mavrodiev, Frank Schweitzer, From Aristotle to Ringelmann: a large-scale analysis of team productivity and coordination in Open Source Software projects, Empirical Software Engineering, v n.2, p, April Software is increasingly produced according to a certain goal and by integrating existing software.
(Click here for bottom) T t T Tackle. An offensive position in American football. The activity (to tackle) is abbreviated ``Tck.''. T Absolute Temperature.
urbanagricultureinitiative.com long chemical names are abbreviated (do I really need to point out that we're talking organic nomenclature?), the ter-indicating a tertiary carbon is often abbreviated to t-. J. L. Mackie - Ethics~ Inventing Right and Wrong (, ) - Free ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online for free.