Many children who have not had ample physical and emotional attention are at higher risk for behavioral, emotional and social problems as they grow up. These trends point to the lasting effects of early infancy environments and the changes that the brain undergoes during that period.
Close Position Statement On Early Cognitive and Language Development and Education of Deaf and Hard of Hearing Children Context Requiring Action Young deaf and hard of hearing children continue to experience delayed cognitive and language development in early childhood that lead to academic difficulties and underperformance when they begin schooling.
Despite the good intentions of government, schools, and professionals, this condition persists, resulting in significant under-education and underemployment for persons who are deaf or hard of hearing. The effects of early language deprivation or limited exposure to language due to not having sufficient access to spoken language or sign language are often so severe as to result in serious health, education and quality of life issues for these children.
Position on Early Childhood Development and Education for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Children The period from birth to 2 is a critical time for the acquisition of language and cognition for all children, and this period of time is often when deaf and hard of hearing children are deprived of processes that promote healthy language development Humphries et al.
Until recently, the view of those in science, society, and education has been that these children will be severely disadvantaged because they lack access to auditory input and therefore auditory language exposure, even if deficient, is the best pathway to resolve this disadvantage.
Signed or visual languages are naturally evolved languages of which there are many throughout the world.
ASL is the signed or visual language that is prevalent in the United States and is the subject of much of the research discussed in this paper. During this period of early life, many deaf and hard of hearing children are, sometimes unintentionally and unknowingly, unable to access the language of their families or peers because this language is not in a visual form.
In the absence of a visual language such as American Sign Language ASLthe risk of harm from language deprivation is heightened and their cognitive capacities are reduced. Language deprivation is the harm that results when a child does not receive sufficient language input to acquire or learn any language or readily develop cognitive capabilities.
The presence of a signed language from birth greatly reduces this risk of harm Humphries et al. Studies have shown that early exposure to visual language changes visual processing and heightens skills in joint-attention.
Children with early exposure to sign language frequently shift eye gaze, which leads to early vocabulary development. These studies, among others, show that by the age of 4, deaf children who use ASL are able to self-regulate attention to a visual language.
Their self-regulation is achieved by careful and constant orchestration of visual gaze and engagement on the part of the adult, especially in contexts involving competing visual input such as book sharing. Early visual skills, particularly the ability to quickly find a picture in an array, predict later reading performance Fernald, It appears that visual learning, which develops along with visual language, is crucial in this correlation.
Unlike hearing children, object exploration and receiving caregiver linguistic input in deaf children requires sequential or alternation of gaze, which can be hypothesized to be a more demanding type of visual attention.
Managing divided visual attention between signed language input and English print on the page has long been thought to be a particularly effective bilingual strategy of deaf signing mothers with their deaf babies.
The persistence of belief that reading a spoken language like English must logically require awareness of phonological coding of English has distracted from consideration in deaf education of the possibility that there are other efficient pathways for deaf children in learning to read.
In a meta-analysis of research studies examining spoken language phonological coding abilities in deaf students educated in a variety of communication modes i.
Specifically, they found two factors correlated with reading achievement: ASL fluency and exposure to print. However, the correlation between print exposure and literacy only holds when in the presence of ASL fluency. While spoken language phonological coding may not predict reading ability very well in deaf children, signed language phonological coding is a stronger factor in development of reading ability.
These findings suggest that an emphasis on visual language development activities as a path to successful reading acquisition may serve as a better model of literacy development for deaf children.
Importantly, use of sign language from an early age does not inhibit the motivation and interest in the learning of speech Swanwick, A study of six bilingual children found that both a baby girl acquiring spoken French and English simultaneously and a baby boy, who was acquiring spoken French and Quebec Sign Language Langue de Signes Quebecoise — LSQachieved classic linguistic milestones and exhibited patterns of lexical growth that were consistent with monolingual norms L.
Yet another study concluded that young bilinguals were not delayed in the achievement of early language milestones in either of their respective native languages.
This finding indicates that both modalities are viable pathways for language acquisition. Moreover, research studies emphasize the importance of fingerspelling for reading. These studies suggest that: Learning to read and write English remains an important educational component for deaf children, and fluency in ASL is linked to literacy and their linguistic, cognitive, and cultural development.
When controlled for other factors, these studies and others showed that fluency in ASL predicts reading achievement. With the link between ASL and English literacy, the basis for visual language in the development of literacy in deaf and hard of hearing children is clear.
Another source of research support for the importance of visual language and visual learning is suggested by the link between deaf families and English literacy in their children: Hypothesizing that deaf families must be doing something in their daily lives that produces bilinguals able to read and write in English, a number of researchers focused on what happens between signing deaf adults and deaf children in deaf families and communities.
These studies identified specific cultural practices and the ways that deaf people link ASL and English in everyday lives, such as: For this reason, early childhood is a crucial point in the education of deaf children.
It is here that support for families and support for the child between home and school begins.May 14, · The behavioral evidence of deleterious effects of play deprivation, and the positive effects of adequate rat play reinforce the anatomically favorable results of .
Jul 24, · The findings underscore both the potential for recovery from early-life isolation and the devastating reach social deprivation can have even if experienced only . Visual deprivation in early life disrupts the development of the visual system, especially binocular vision.
The chapter starts with a review of the effects of rearing animals in darkness and the effects . This course examines the effects of early childhood deprivation, maltreatment, and abuse on brain development, as well as ways in which early childhood professionals can .
For over half a century, researchers have attempted to specify the effects of childrearing in socially depriving environments on child development, specifically studying the development of children from institutions found to provide few social and emotional interactions between caregivers and children and comparing findings to those for home-reared children.
Sleep deprivation may be undermining teen health. Lack of sufficient sleep--a rampant problem among teens--appears to put adolescents at risk for cognitive and emotional difficulties, poor school performance, accidents and psychopathology, research suggests.