Etymology[ edit ] In the English languagethe word "individualism" was first introduced, as a pejorative, by the Owenites in the late s, although it is unclear if they were influenced by Saint-Simonianism or came up with it independently. Although an early Owenite socialist, he eventually rejected its collective idea of property, and found in individualism a "universalism" that allowed for the development of the "original genius. Individual An individual is a person or any specific object in a collection.
On Liberty and Utilitarianism. Oxford University Press, Reviewed by James Booker, MA. Agoraphobia — in the philosophical and practical sense. His father reared him to be a radical utilitarian.
But he later softened his views. Yet he remained a utilitarian — although he tweaked it somewhat. He was also a staunch empiricist. He did not believe in natural rights, natural law, or universals.
In his book, On Liberty, Mill elevated the individual over the masses. He believed in the sovereignty of the individual. Mass opinion was at war with individual thoughts and actions.
People no longer viewed themselves as different, but more and more part of a collective — on a grand scale. For Mill, the individual was real. Unfortunately, Marx had his finger on the pulse of the industrializing of nations.
Mill, however, saw that public opinion was tyranny by majority. Marx believed in the utopia of the Masses. However, people were becoming increasingly intolerant of differing points of views.
This was a real threat to liberty, according to Mill. He believed that if public opinion continues to grow and suppress individual thought — England would turn into China.
Conformity was the enemy. Mill believed in toleration of ideas and opinions. If a person is not open to scrutiny and to criticisms, that person believes in the infallibility of his position and himself.
This is dangerous for society and individuals. Mill acknowledge society no longer killed prophets or burned people at the stake, but society stigmatizes and even penalizes those who hold to another opinion s. I tolerate your absurd beliefs and your foolish acts, though I know them to be absurd and foolish.
Mill would, I think agreed. Today, college students do not wish to be exposed to different points of views that challenges their thinking. Agoraphobia has set in, wide-spread, and noxious in higher education. For example, the theory of evolution, same-sex marriage, abortion, and climate change are sacrosanct topics.
They are not to be challenged or even questioned. An orthodoxy has set in. These have become settled science.
Today, people run the risk of losing their careers and jobs. People are stigmatized, labeled as racists and bigots. For instance, in the early twentieth-century intellectuals convinced the masses to embrace the idea of eugenics.
People of color, inferior races, and the disabled had to be stopped from procreating — at all cost. For example, Galileo Galilei was imprisoned for postulating a heliocentric galaxy rather than geocentric galaxy.
Mill arrives at two maxims: Friends and family can try to persuade and convince, but not control his actions.Liberalism is a political and economic doctrine that emphasizes individual autonomy, equality of opportunity, and the protection of individual rights (primarily to life, liberty, and property), originally against the state and later against both the state and private economic actors, including businesses.
ENCYCLOPEDIA OF FREEMASONRY AND ITS KINDRED SCIENCES by ALBERT C.
MACKEY M. D. Browse the Encyclopedia by clicking on any of the letters below. A | B | C | D | E | F.
Our minds tell us, and history confirms, that the great threat to freedom is the concentration of power. Government is necessary to preserve our freedom, it is an instrument through which we can exercise our freedom; yet by concentrating power in political hands, it is also a threat to freedom.
JOHN STUART MILL'S ON LIBERTY, AND A QUESTION ABOUT LIBERALISM by Ted Honderich This paper considers the issue of whether there is clear sense in John Stuart Mill's essay On urbanagricultureinitiative.com does this reputed foundation of liberalism come to? About the online edition. This was scanned from the edition and mechanically checked against a commercial copy of the text from CDROM.
Differences were corrected against the paper edition. QUOTE NOTE: Achebe was one of the first authors to describe European colonization from the perspective of native-born Africans.
Prior to his novel Things Fall Apart, almost all stories about Africa had been written by English and European urbanagricultureinitiative.com preceded his remark by saying: “Storytelling has to do with power.