History[ edit ] The earliest documentation of critical thinking are the teachings of Socrates recorded by Plato. Socrates established the fact that one cannot depend upon those in "authority" to have sound knowledge and insight. He demonstrated that persons may have power and high position and yet be deeply confused and irrational. He established the importance of asking deep questions that probe profoundly into thinking before we accept ideas as worthy of belief.
When examining the vast literature on critical thinking, various definitions of critical thinking emerge. Here are some samples: To recognize its strengths and weaknesses and, as a result, 2. To recast the thinking in improved form" Center for Critical Thinking, c.
Perhaps the simplest definition is offered by Beyer Basically, Beyer sees critical thinking as using criteria to judge the quality of something, from cooking to a conclusion of a research paper. In essence, critical thinking is a disciplined manner of thought that a person uses to assess the validity of something statements, news stories, arguments, research, etc.
Characteristics of Critical Thinking Wade identifies eight characteristics of critical thinking.
Critical thinking involves asking questions, defining a problem, examining evidence, analyzing assumptions and biases, avoiding emotional reasoning, avoiding oversimplification, considering other interpretations, and tolerating ambiguity. Another characteristic of critical thinking identified by many sources is metacognition.
In the book, Critical Thinking, Beyer elaborately explains what he sees as essential aspects of critical thinking. Critical thinkers are skeptical, open-minded, value fair-mindedness, respect evidence and reasoning, respect clarity and precision, look at different points of view, and will change positions when reason leads them to do so.
To think critically, must apply criteria. Need to have conditions that must be met for something to be judged as believable. Although the argument can be made that each subject area has different criteria, some standards apply to all subjects.
Is a statement or proposition with supporting evidence. Critical thinking involves identifying, evaluating, and constructing arguments. The ability to infer a conclusion from one or multiple premises.
To do so requires examining logical relationships among statements or data. In a search for understanding, critical thinkers view phenomena from many different points of view.
Procedures for Applying Criteria: Other types of thinking use a general procedure. Critical thinking makes use of many procedures. These procedures include asking questions, making judgments, and identifying assumptions.
Why Teach Critical Thinking? Through technology, the amount of information available today is massive.Critical and Creative Thinking learning continuum Sub-element Level 1 Typically, by the end of Foundation Year, students: Level 2 Typically, by the end of.
Pedagogy. When teachers use Socratic questioning in teaching, their purpose may be to probe student thinking, to determine the extent of student knowledge on a given topic, issue or subject, to model Socratic questioning for students or to help students analyze a concept or line of reasoning.
Guide to Rating Critical & Integrative Thinking Washington State University, Fall For each of the seven criteria below, assess the work by. Pedagogy. When teachers use Socratic questioning in teaching, their purpose may be to probe student thinking, to determine the extent of student knowledge on a given topic, issue or subject, to model Socratic questioning for students or to help students analyze a concept or line of reasoning.
What Is Critical Thinking? Critical thinking, as applied in the Watson Glaser test, is the ability to look at a situation and assess it, to consider and understand multiple perspectives, and to recognise and extract the facts from opinions and assumptions. Critical thinking is simply reasoning out whether a claim is true, partly true, sometimes true, or false.
Logic is applied by the critical thinker to understand character, motivation, point of view and expression.